Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Campephilus principalis




Woodpeckers (Picidae)

Code 4


Code 6



Egg Color:


Number of Eggs:

1 - 5

Incubation Days:


Egg Incubator:

Both sexes

Nest Location:

In tree cavity.

Nest Material:

No material added to nest.





Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Largest and rarest North American woodpecker, mostly jet-black with large white wing patches, large red crest, black chin and throat, and thick white stripes extending from bill to rear of wings. In flight, wings appear white with black tips and thick black center stripe. Bill is large and pale. Female has black crest. Probably extinct.

Range and Habitat

Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Historically ranged in southeastern U.S., from Ohio River Valley to east Texas, the Gulf coast, and Florida; thought to be extinct for more than 60 years, but possibly rediscovered in the "Big Woods" region of eastern Arkansas. Habitats include old growth, bottomland forests. Populations were sparse, needing about 16 square kilometers to support one pair.

Breeding and Nesting

Ivory-billed Woodpecker: One to five eggs are laid in a cavity excavated in a dead or partially dead tree. Eggs are incubated for 20 days by both parents.

Foraging and Feeding

Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Feeds on insects, primarily beetle larvae, and sometimes fruits and nuts. Requires extensive stands of mature forests with many recently dead, but still standing, trees where beetle larvae live. When foraging, strips the still-tight bark from dead trees.


Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Call is a nasal "kent", similar to the toot of a tin horn; also known for a unique double-knock made when striking a tree with bill. Song is a nasal, clarinet-like "yank, yank, yank", often given in series.

Similar Species

Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Probably extinct. Pileated Woodpecker is smaller, does not show white on wings when perched, has red crest in sexes, and has gray to black bill.

The area of the face just below the bill.
Tufts of feathers on the head of the bird.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X