Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula




Blackbirds (Icteridae)

Code 4


Code 6



Egg Color:

White or blue with dark marks on large end

Number of Eggs:


Incubation Days:

12 - 14

Egg Incubator:


Nest Location:

Attached to tree branch., 25 - 30 feet above ground.

Nest Material:

Lined with grass and hair.





Baltimore Oriole: Small oriole, mostly bright orange with black hood and back. Wings are black with orange shoulder patches and strongly white-edged feathers that appear as bars. Black base and center form a T-shaped mark on orange tail. Female is similar but much duller, lacks black hood and back, orange shoulder patch, darker orange-brown head and back, pale chin, and gray wash on sides. Juvenile is paler overall and has gray belly; first year male has black throat patch.

Range and Habitat

Baltimore Oriole: Breeds from eastern British Columbia and southern Nova Scotia south through eastern Texas, the Mississippi River Valley, and Virginia. Spends winters in Florida, along the southern Atlantic coast, southern Mexico, and the West Indies. Preferred habitats include open woods and shade trees.

Breeding and Nesting

Baltimore Oriole: Four brown- and black-blotched, pale gray white or blue eggs are laid in a nest woven from long plant fibers, vine bark, hair, and sometimes yarn; lined with hair, wool, and fine grass. Incubation ranges from 12 to 14 days and is carried out by the female.

Foraging and Feeding

Baltimore Oriole: Feeds primarily on caterpillars, moths, beetles, ants, bugs, scale insects, aphids, and woodborers; also eats fruits, garden peas, and flower nectar. Forages by gleaning prey insects from leaves and twigs.

Readily Eats

Sugar Water, Jelly, Orange Halves


Baltimore Oriole: Song is flutelike, a low "hew-li."

Similar Species

Baltimore Oriole: Bullock's Oriole lacks black head. Female Baltimore Oriole has less gray on upperparts and more orange on breast than female Bullock’s.

The area of the face just below the bill.
The short feathers overlying the median secondary coverts on the top of the wing. They are located near the back and can be seen as the “first row” of feathers on the birds wing. They are also called marginal coverts and lesser secondary coverts.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X