Gray Francolin

Francolinus pondicerianus




Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys, Old World Quail (Phasianidae)

Code 4


Code 6



Egg Color:

Cream to brown.

Number of Eggs:

4 - 6

Incubation Days:

18 - 21

Egg Incubator:


Nest Location:

On the ground, in grasslands and fields

Nest Material:

Scrape lined with grass, stems, feathers, leaves.





Gray Francolin: Introduced to Hawaii in 1958. Have buff-brown overall with barring finer on underparts and heavier on the upperparts. Face and cheeks are buff to orange-brown. Buff throat, bordered below by a narrow black stripe. Legs and feet are dull red. Bill is dark. Irises are brown. Sexes are similar; males are larger and have two sets of spurs. Juveniles are similar to adults, but have less color on forehead, throat lacks or has indistinct black border. Races are separated by pale to dark body coloration.

Range and Habitat

Gray Francolin: This bird is found on all the main Hawaiian Islands. Its preferred habitats include savannas and shrubland, though it may also be seen in coastal kiawe forests, golf courses, and roadsides. Occurs from sea level up to 3,280'. Native to Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

Breeding and Nesting

Gray Francolin: Four to ten cream to light brown eggs are laid in a shallow scrape or depression which may be lined with leaves, feathers and grass. Eggs are incubated for 18-19 days by the female. Chicks are precocial upon hatching.

Foraging and Feeding

Gray Francolin: They feed on various plants and animals, especially seeds and insects. Plant materials include grass and weed seeds, cultivated grains, buds, flowers, leaves, rhizomes, fruits and berries. On occasion, they consume small amphibians and reptiles, earthworms, spiders and mollusks. They forage on the ground at the edges of forests and cultivated fields and in scrub and brush.


Gray Francolin: Male attracts females and announces his territory with about 6 "check-check" notes followed by loud and fast "ke-titur, ke-titur" notes. Contact call is a soft, whistled "kila-kila-kila" and alarm call is a high pitched "khirr-khirr".

Similar Species

Gray Francolin: Female Black Francolin is similar, but has light chestnut patch on nape, paler cheeks, and upperparts show more dark brown or black than red-brown.


Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

Back, rump, hindneck, wings, and crown.
The front part of the head consisting of the bill, eyes, cheeks and chin.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X