Hawaii Elepaio

Chasiempis sandwichensis




Monarch-flycatchers (Monarchidae)

Code 4


Code 6



Egg Color:

White with red-brown markings.

Number of Eggs:

1 - 3

Incubation Days:


Egg Incubator:

Both sexes

Nest Location:

Usually in a fork of native or non native trees.

Nest Material:

Rootlets, grasses, spider webs, and bark.





Hawaii Elepaio: Small monarch flycatcher found on the Big Island of Hawaii. Crown and back are brown; forehead and eyebrow may be white or rufous. Throat is black and may show some white. Underparts are white with a brown streaked breast. Wing bars and rump are white, long brown tail may have white tip; black bill, dark gray legs and feet. Sexes are similar, female shows more white on the throat. Juveniles are gray-brown overall, with two light brown wing bars and rump. Throat and breast are white.

Range and Habitat

Hawaii Elepaio: Can be found on Hawaii in most forested areas above 2000'. More common in wet and mesic forests. Three subspecies have been identified on the big island: C. s. sandwichensis in mesic forest, C.s. ridgwayi in rainforest, and C. s. bryani in mamane-naio dry forest on the west slope of Mauna Kea.

Breeding and Nesting

Hawaii Elepaio: These birds breed from January to August. They are monogamous and often mate for life. One to three white eggs with red-brown markings are laid in a woven cup-shaped nest built in the ohia and other trees. Both sexes incubate the eggs for 18 days. Chicks fledge after 16 days but continue to be fed by their parents for more than a month.

Foraging and Feeding

Hawaii Elepaio: They forage in trees and on the ground for a wide variety of arthropods, most commonly insects and spiders. Elepaio are very versatile foragers, utilizing the full range of the forest to obtain their prey. They also perform entertaining acrobatic flights through the understory while chasing flying insects.


Hawaii Elepaio: A loud whistled "el-e-pai-o" song, chattering contact calls, and "chit-chit" or "whee-oo" alarm calls.

Similar Species

Hawaii Elepaio: Unlikely to be confused with any other species in its range.


Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

The upper front part of a bird.
The crown is the top part of the birds head.
Also called the supercilicum or superciliary it is the arch of feathers over each eye.
The area between the uppertail coverts and the back of the bird.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X