Canada Jay

Perisoreus canadensis




Crows and Jays (Corvidae)

Code 4


Code 6



Egg Color:

White to olive with olive and brown marks

Number of Eggs:

2 - 5

Incubation Days:

16 - 18

Egg Incubator:


Nest Location:

4 - 30 feet above the ground.

Nest Material:

Lined with moss, grass, sticks, bark, feathers, and fur., Fastened together with spider webs and insect cocoons.





Canada Jay: Medium-sized, fluffy, crestless jay with gray upperparts, paler underparts, and a short bill. Tail is long and white-tipped. Three distinguishable populations occur: Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Taiga. All have black eyes, bills, legs and feet, and white ear patches and throats. Juvenile is gray overall with white moustache stripe and gray bill.

Range and Habitat

Canada Jay: Found from tree line in northern Canada and Alaska south through boreal and subalpine forests to northern California on the west coast, Arizona and New Mexico in the Rocky Mountains, northern Wisconsin in the Midwest, and New York in the east. Found in coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests.

Breeding and Nesting

Canada Jay: Two to five white to olive eggs, spotted with olive and brown, are laid in a solid bowl of twigs and bark strips, lined with feathers and fur, and built near the trunk of a dense conifer. Incubation ranges from 16 to 18 days and is carried out by the female.

Foraging and Feeding

Canada Jay: Eats arthropods, berries, carrion, bird eggs and young, and fungi. Forages in trees, shrubs, and on the ground; chases insects in the air.

Readily Eats

Suet, Nuts, Sunflower


Canada Jay: Emits "whee-ah" and "chuck-chuck"; also gives scolding screams and whistles.

Similar Species

Canada Jay: Clark's Nutcracker is chunkier with a shorter tail, longer bill, and has black wings and tail with white patches.


Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

Back, rump, hindneck, wings, and crown.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X