Pine Grosbeak

Pinicola enucleator

Order

PASSERIFORMES

Family

Fringilline & Cardueline Finches (Fringillidae)

Code 4

PIGR

Code 6

PINENU

ITIS

Egg Color:

Blue green with black, purple and brown spots.



Number of Eggs:

2 - 5



Incubation Days:

13 - 15



Egg Incubator:

Female



Nest Location:

2 - 25 feet above ground.



Nest Material:

Twigs, weeds, rootlets, with lining of soft grass.



Migration:

Northern birds migrate



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General

Pine Grosbeak: Large, robust finch with red-washed black back, gray sides and undertail coverts, and pink-red rump and underparts. Head and face are pink-red; bill is heavy and black. Wings are black with two pale bars. Tail is black and slightly notched. Female and juvenile are gray with variably orange or olive-brown heads, napes, and faces. Juvenile male resembles female but may have red wash on head.

Range and Habitat

Pine Grosbeak: Breeds from Alaska east to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, south in the western mountains to California and Arizona. Winters south to the Dakotas and New York. Prefers open coniferous forests and forest edges. Winters in mixed coniferous-deciduous forests; also found in shade trees in villages and in suburbs where it looks for food.

Breeding and Nesting

Pine Grosbeak: Two to five blue green eggs with black, purple, and brown spots are laid in a bulky nest made of twigs, weeds, and rootlets, lined with hair, soft grass, moss, and lichens, and built low in a conifer, usually no more than 10 to 12 feet above the ground. Incubation ranges from 13 to 15 days and is carried out by the female.

Foraging and Feeding

Pine Grosbeak: Feeds on seeds, buds, fruits, and insects; favorites include crabapple, bittersweet, barberry, and mountain ash fruit, and birch, pine, and spruce seeds; forages in trees and on the ground.

Readily Eats

Safflower, Apple Slices, Suet, Millet, Peanut Kernels, Sunflower Seed, Fruit

Vocalization

Pine Grosbeak: Song varies from a clear, loud carol full of trills to a soft, flowing warble. Call consists of a whistled "teu, teu, teu", with the middle note higher. Both may be given in flight.

Similar Species

Pine Grosbeak: Other grosbeaks and finches are smaller, have shorter tails, and different calls. White-winged Crossbill is smaller and has distinct white patches on wings. Red Crossbill is smaller and has forked tail.

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UnderpartsX

Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

Undertail covertsX
Small feathers that cover the areas where the retrices (tail feathers) attach to the rump.
FaceX
The front part of the head consisting of the bill, eyes, cheeks and chin.
RumpX
The area between the uppertail coverts and the back of the bird.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X